Judo (Japanese: judo; “gentle way”) is a Martial Art, sport, and philosophy originated in Japan. Judo was the successor of Jujutsu and was founded by Dr. Jigoro Kano in 1882. The sport became the model of the modern Japanese martial arts, gendai budo, developed from old koryu schools. Practitioners of Judo are called judoka.
According to the International Federation of Associated Wrestling Styles (FILA), Judo is one of the four main forms of amateur competitive wrestling practiced internationally today, the other three being Greco-Roman wrestling, Freestyle wrestling and Sambo wrestling.
While Judo includes a variety of rolls, falls, throws, pins, chokes, joint-locks, and methods of percussion, the primary focus is on throwing (nage-waza), and groundwork (ne-waza).
Nage-waza is divided in two groups of techniques, standing techniques (tachi-waza) and sacrifice techniques (sutemi-waza). Standing techniques are divided in hand techniques (te-waza), hip techniques (koshi-waza) and foot/leg techniques (ashi-waza). Sacrifice techniques are divided into those in which the thrower falls directly backwards (ma-sutemi-waza) and those in which he falls onto his side (yoko-sutemi-waza).
The groundwork techniques are divided into: attacks against the joints or joint locks (kansetsu-waza), strangleholds or chokeholds (shime-waza), and holding or pinning techniques (osaekomi-waza).